By Ivan Berend
Why did a few nations and areas of Europe succeed in excessive degrees of monetary development within the 19th century, whereas others have been left in the back of? This new transnational survey of the continent's fiscal improvement highlights the function of local modifications in shaping each one country's financial direction and consequence. providing a transparent and cogent rationalization of the ancient reasons of development and backwardness, Ivan Berend integrates social, political, institutional and cultural elements in addition to conducting debates concerning the relative roles of data, the nation and associations. that includes boxed essays on key personalities together with Adam Smith, Friedrich checklist, Gustave Eiffel and the Krupp kin, in addition to short histories of concepts equivalent to the steam engine, vaccinations and the co-operative method, the publication is helping to give an explanation for the theories and macro-economic developments that ruled the century and their impression at the next improvement of the ecu economic system correct as much as the current day.
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Additional resources for An Economic History of Nineteenth-Century Europe: Diversity and Industrialization
10. r 19 cultures; and “histoire crois´ee,” a combination of comparative and transfer analysis (Kaelble, 2009). Sydney Pollard’s Peaceful Conquest (1981) was a pioneering, but somewhat inconsistent attempt, since he combined a regional approach to Western Europe with a country-by-country discussion of the peripheries. Franc¸ois Crouzet’s masterful pan-European economic history (Crouzet, 2001) covered an entire millennium and discussed the nineteenth century in one chapter. Most recently the two volumes of the Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe (1700–1870, and 1870 to the present) (Broadberry and O’Rourke, 2010) has offered an “explicit pan-European approach, with the material organized by topic rather than by country” (xiii).
This index, introduced by the United Nations Development Program, has been in regular use by it since 1990. Among others, the structure of employment and the various sectors’ contribution to GDP, the structure of foreign trade, dependence on capital and technology imports, share of modern sectors, and the level of the development of infrastructure, etc. According to Maria Todorova, the concept of Balkan backwardness is the product of a “frozen” Western image of the Balkans as a region “of industrial backwardness, primitive social relations and institutions, irrational and superstitious cultures, and tribal barbarity .
The history of this concept goes back to Rosa Luxemburg’s agrarian “third person” as a crucial market for the rich countries (Luxemburg,  1975), to Nikolai Bukharin’s country and metropolis metaphor (Bukharin  1966), to “industrial Europe A” and “agrarian Europe B” in Francis Delaisi’s (1929) ´ Prebisch’s theoretical works (1981). ” From that time on a huge literature covered this topic. One of the most widespread popularizations was achieved by Immanuel Wallerstein (1974). See an excellent theoretical handling of the history of the concept in Love (1996).
An Economic History of Nineteenth-Century Europe: Diversity and Industrialization by Ivan Berend