By C. W. Rose, W. Ashhurst and H. T. Flint (Auth.)
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All the terms in eqn. 8) have the nature of energy flux density, with units to agree with that chosen for LE of cal cm -2 sec-1. Terms on the right-hand side of this equation are positive if energy is removed from the surface. Any change in heat storage of the vegetation has been neglected in this equation, together with the small fraction used in photosynthesis (usually ~ 1 per cent of Rs). The relative importance of the terms in eqn. 8) can vary enormously. If a soil surface is moist or carrying an actively transpiring crop for example, the greater part of the available solar energy is commonly expended in the evaporation of water.
An Introduction to Physical Microclimatology. University of California, Davis, 1960. 14. ROBINSON, G. , Notes on the measurement and estimation of atmospheric radiation, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 73,127 (1947). 15. ΜΟΝΤΕΠΉ, J. , An empirical method for estimating long-wave radiation exchanges in the British Isles, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 87, 171 (1961). 16. SWINBANK, W. C , Long-wave radiation from clear skies, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 89, 339 (1963). 17. , Notes on radiation in the atmosphere, I, Quart.
Shaw,<6> Geiger^) and Keen<7> (who summarizes much of the early work on the thermal properties and heat flow in soils) all give tables of thermal properties of various soil types. 4) where 0m, θ0 and 9W are the volume fractions of mineral material, organic matter, and water respectively, p^c being in units cal cm -3 deg-1 C. It is to be noted that (0m + θ0 + 9W + θα) = 1, where θα is the volume fraction of air. The main difficulty in applying eqn. 3) to heat conduction in soils is the variation in κ with depth and time, due to differences in moisture content and porosity, and to moisture movement.
Agricultural Physics by C. W. Rose, W. Ashhurst and H. T. Flint (Auth.)