By Marian Klamer
Teiwa is a non-Austronesian ('Papuan') language spoken at the island of Pantar, in japanese Indonesia, positioned simply north of Timor island. It has approx. 4,000 audio system and is very endangered. whereas the non-Austronesian languages of the Alor-Pantar archipelago are essentially concerning one another, as indicated through the numerous obvious cognates and the very comparable pronominal paradigms stumbled on around the staff, their genetic courting to different Papuan languages is still arguable. situated a few 1,000 km from their putative Papuan associates at the New Guinea mainland, the Alor-Pantar languages are the main far away westerly Papuan outliers. A grammar of Teiwa provides a grammatical description of 1 of those 'outlier' languages. The e-book is established as a reference grammar: after a basic creation at the language, it audio system and the linguistic state of affairs on Alor and Pantar, the grammar builds up from an outline of the language's phonology and be aware periods to its higher grammatical components and their mutual family: nominal words, serial verb structures, clauses, clause mixtures, and data constitution. whereas many Papuan languages are morphologically complicated, Teiwa is sort of analytic: it has just one paradigm of item marking prefixes, and one verbal suffix marking realis prestige. different typologically attention-grabbing positive aspects of the language comprise: (i) the presence of uvular fricatives and forestalls, that is extraordinary for languages of jap Indonesia; (ii) the absence of trivalent verbs: transitive verbs decide upon a unmarried (animate or inanimate) item, whereas the extra player is expressed with a separate predicate; and (iii) the absence of morpho-syntactically encoded embedded clauses. A grammar of Teiwa is predicated on basic box facts, gathered via the writer in 2003-2007. a variety of glossed and translated Teiwa texts of varied style
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Teiwa
Rai [na la] soi ga-kamadal ga-boxan tas. king 1S FOC order 3S-belt 3S-guard stand ‘I was ordered by the king to guard his belt’ (14) Yi [amidan la] g-om ma ga-uyan? 2p what FOC 3S-inside come 3S-search ‘Where (lit. ’ (15) Na riaq a na’ 1S fear 3S maybe ‘I fear that maybe la] a min-an [wad teran ga-x. today midnight FOC 3S die-REAL 3S-possess he’ll die tonight’ Clauses following a focus NP function as relative clauses. This is expected because cross-linguistically, restrictive relative clauses are typically reserved for the coding of pragmatically presupposed propositions (cf.
They include: clause chaining (often with a concomitant switch reference system), a morphological contrast between ‘medial’ and ‘final’ verbs (as found in most core members of the TNG family, Pawley 2005: 91), the presence of subordinated or dependent (‘medial’) clauses, as well as a (relatively) rich system of inflectional and derivational affixes. In general, Teiwa is morpho-syntactically simpler than many other Papuan languages. However, Teiwa distinguishes between alienable and inalienable possession, a distinction found in a number of different Papuan families, and present in virtually all the Papuan languages of eastern Indonesia (with the exception of some in North Halmahera).
From there they moved on to Alor. In the 19th century, Alor still remained part of a trade network with traders from Buton, Kupang, and Makassar, among others. For example, in 1851, every year more than 100 vessels came to the island to buy rice, corn and wax (Van Lynden 1851:333). In a treaty negotiated in 1854 and ratified in 1859, Portugal ceded all its historical claims on Alor and Pantar (as well as Flores and Solor) to the Dutch, in exchange for the Dutch Pulau Kambing (Ataúru) north of Dili, Timor.
A Grammar of Teiwa by Marian Klamer